Immunofluorescent analysis of cilia in renal tissues. (A) Sections (4 μm) of renal parenchymal tissues and tumor tissues were stained with DAPI, acetylated-α-tubulin (Ac-tub) and pericentrin (PCNT) to mark cell nuclei and cilia. Presented images are maximal projections of confocal images of typical parenchymal tissue and a representative ccRCC. Scale bars 20 μm. (B) Normalized cilia frequencies of renal tumors, shown are paired quantifications of n = 20 samples. The plot compares the two cilia quantification methodologies described; data was obtained by immunofluorescent (IF) confocal image acquisition or scoring of immunohistochemical (IHC) stained sections. Statistics were determined by performing a paired t-test at a 95% confidence interval.