Effect of ethanol and acetylaldehyde on rat brain ependymal ciliary beat frequency at 37°C. (A) Effect of ethanol on rat brain ependymal ciliary beat frequency (CBF). Three different concentrations of ethanol (0.1%, filled squares; 0.5%, filled triangles; 1%, open squares) and a control (open circles) were studied. (B) Effect of acteylaldehyde on rat brain ependymal CBF. Two different concentrations of acetylaldehyde (100 μM, filled squares; 250 μM, filled triangles) and a control (open circles) were studied. Data represent the mean and standard deviation of 5 to 13 repeat experiments.