Structural change of dynein induced by nucleotides. (A-C) Left: structure with ADP.Vi (pre-power stroke). Right: structure without additional nucleotide (apo; post-power stroke). (A) Tomography structure of mouse respiratory cilia ODA, consisting of two dyneins, which highlights relocation of the linker with respect to the AAA ring. The linker is shown in orange and yellow in the ADP.Vi and apo forms, respectively . (B) Tomography structure of Chlamydomonas ODA, showing shift of the head (green rings) and orientations of the stalk (blue and red dotted lines) as well as the neck domains and N-terminal tails (red and blue solid lines). From  with permission. (C) High resolution single particle structures by the Burgess group fitted to our tomogram. This fitting suggests rotation of the stalk. From  with permission. (D) Schematic diagrams of three hypotheses of the dynein power stroke.