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Table 1 Summary of fixation methods and their effects on cilia marker immunolabeling

From: Fixation methods can differentially affect ciliary protein immunolabeling

Antibodies Cilia staining
PFA-S PFA/PBS MeOH CBPFA CB MeOH CB CBPFA CB CBPFA MeOH
IMCD3
β-tubulin + + + + ++ +++ +++
Acetylated-α- tubulin +++ +++ ++ +++ +++ +++ +++
Detyrosinated tubulin +++ +++ +++ + + +++ +++
Polyglutamylated tubulin + + +/− +++ +++ +++ +++
AC3 + +
Arl13b +++ +++ + +++
CSPP1 +/− +/− ++ + +++
IFT20 + + +
RPE
β-tubulin +/− + + + ++ +++ +++
Acetylated-α-tubulin +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++
Detyrosinated tubulin +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++ +++
Polyglutamylated tubulin ++ +++ +/− ++ +++ +/− +++
AC3
Arl13b +++ +++ +++
CSPP1 + + +++ +++ +
IFT20 +/− + ++ +++
  1. −, no cilia staining; +/−, some, but not all cells have cilia staining; +, cilia staining is present, but not obvious (i.e. high background); ++, easily noticeable cilia staining; +++, cilia staining is bright with low background