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Table 1 Comparison of ciliary beat pattern (CBP) and ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in eight patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and seven healthy non-smoking controls measured by conventional ciliary function analysis (cCFA) performed immediately after brush biopsy and after patient-specific 3D-explant spheroid (3D-E) formation

From: Patient-specific three-dimensional explant spheroids derived from human nasal airway epithelium: a simple methodological approach for ex vivo studies of primary ciliary dyskinesia

Healthy Mean CBF, cCFA (Hz) Mean CBF, 3D-E (Hz) CBP, cCFA CBP, 3D-E No. of days in culture EM defects IF defects PCD mutation nNO (ppb)
1 10.7 10.0 Synchronous Synchronous 4
2 10.0 9.8 Synchronous Synchronous 5
3 10.0 11.5 Synchronous Synchronous 4
4 8.8 9.0 Synchronous Synchronous 5
5 8.3 8.0 Synchronous Synchronous 1
6 7.8 9.0 Synchronous Synchronous 3
7 5.3 7.0 Synchronous Synchronous 3
PCD
 1 0 0 Immotile Immotile 5 ODA DNAH5 (polyclonal) abnormal Awaiting results 36
 2 0 0 Immotile/stiff flickery Immotile/stiff flickery 2 Radial spoke head defect +IDA defect GAS8/11 abnormal and DNALI1 (monoclonal) inconclusive CCDC40 52
 3 0 0 Immotile Immotile 1 ODA DNAH5 (polyclonal) inconclusive and DNALI1 (LC28,polyclonal) abnormal Awaiting results 30
 4 3.0 4.0 Asynchronous Asynchronous 2 ODA DNAH5 (polyclonal) abnormal Awaiting results 283
 5 3.6 5.0 Asynchronous Asynchronous 2 ODA DNAH5 (polyclonal) abnormal Awaiting results 102
 6 5.3 5.0 Asynchronous Asynchronous 5 Normal None found Unknown 101
 7 3.6 5.0 Asynchronous Asynchronous 2 Inconclusive None found Unknown
 8 3.0 2.0 Stiff and asynchronous Stiff and asynchronous 2 Sample poor, not repeated Not done Unknown 36