Determination of cilia frequency. (A) Acetylated-α-tubulin-stained renal tissue section obtained from the parenchyma of tumor tissue shows the presence of cilia lining tubular structures. Structures encircled in green are identified as cilia, red encircled structures are considered aberrant acetylated-α-tubulin staining or lack sufficient clarity. Stromal or supportive tissue cells between tubules typically do not have cilia. (B) Acetylated-α-tubulin-stained section of tissue obtained from typical and abnormal parenchymal tissue and a typical ccRCC. (C-E) Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and acetylated-α-tubulin stainings of a typical oncocytoma, chromophobe RCC (chrRCC) and sarcomatoid renal tumor. (F) Scatter plot and median of cilia frequency in parenchymal (P, green) tissues compared to matched RCC subtypes (T, red). Significant populations using t-test (95% confidence) are indicated with asterisks. All images 1 mm core and outlined magnifications.