Skip to main content

Effects of the novel formin INF1 on ciliogenesis


INF1 is a novel member of the formin family of cytoskeletal regulatory proteins. We previously identified a connection between INF1 expression and microtubule acetylation and more recently have found that INF1 expression induces Golgi dispersion. Given the dependence of ciliogenesis on microtubule acetylation and Golgi-dependent trafficking we wished to determine the effects of INF1 expression on cilia formation.


Transient transfection was used to express a series of INF1 derivative in NIH 3T3 cells and the effects on cilia formation, cilia length and Golgi dispersion were monitored by immunofluorescence. Anti-acetylated tubulin was used to visualize cilia and anti-Giantin was used to visualize Golgi morphology.


INF1 expression inhibited ciliogenesis in the majority of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, however, inhibition of ciliogenesis was not connected to INF1-induced Golgi dispersion. A minority of INF1-expressing cells did form cilia and these were greatly elongated, the longest exceeding 70mm. A series of INF1 deletion derivatives were used to show that both inhibition of cilia formation and the induction of cilia elongation were dependent upon both the FH2 and microtubule-binding domains of INF1.


The effects of INF1 expression on ciliogenesis were separate from its effects on Golgi-dispersion suggesting that Golgi untethering does not always inhibit ciliogenesis. The morphology of the elongated cilia formed in INF1 expressing cells is consistent with defects in dynein function.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Rights and permissions

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Copeland, S., Tenneson, C., Kulacz, W. et al. Effects of the novel formin INF1 on ciliogenesis. Cilia 4 (Suppl 1), P33 (2015).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • DOI: